Saturday, July 7, 2012

Volume 45. Number 4/2003

In his article „Democratization Process and Methods and Factors for Transformation from an Autocracy to Democracy“, S. Enkhtur, lecturer at the Academy of Political Edcuation extensively explains what is democratization process, and which methods existing for transformation from an autocracy to a democracy by anylzing from the historical point of view. Addiitonally, he will give readers the understanding on democratization waves. Beside of this, he did comparing study on which are internal and external factors for democratization process and which differences exists among political scientists about these factors.
The main idea suggested in the article of Batmunkh Ts, who works in the Conrad Adenauer Foundation „Forming Open Parliamentarism Working to Protect Rights of Minority“ is deepining of the parlimentary democracy in Mongolia. He emphasises that parliament is not only a organ for legislation and appoiting the government and its control, it shall be a representative organ, which is first of all to protect and guarantee human rights and to develop proper environment for human development. For this it is important that parliement shall develop to an institution, activities of which is open to the public, and in which the majority and minority that were formed according to the election, could deal with each other on equal basis, and enables an equal dicussion by competing through its best policy alternative.
All idea of the author fouces on how to make the parliamentary activity more democratic and to direct to interests of public. Finally, he noticed that the sence of the parliamentary reform is to look for new ideas in receiving information from public, guaranteeing to control and intensifying citizen‘s paritcipation in the legislation process.
Altansukh B., lecturer at the Academy of Political Education, states in his article “Impact of Economic Policy on Political Process” that political economic policy was always one of the interesting topics for researchers. Theory of social choice is one of different ideas and polygonal ideas of researchers concerning which economic policy helps political forces to strengthen their power by attracting the electors. This theory is an approach for political forces how to deal with any economic policy, further more importance of government for improving social satisfaction. But it is not a receipt how to get power and to strengthen power. In the article, different factors, which influence economic process and reciprocity of these, are discussed.
In his article „Positive and Negative Consequences of political Populism”, Bayarmaa B., lecturer at the Academy of Political Education concentrated on comparative analysis of positive and negative consequences of populism, which is a kind of social movement and political activities and an expression of idea, psychological point of view and ethical behaviour of politicians. Further more, she striven to give introduction into the history of populism and to define factors which help to arise and to let reactivate populism in legislative organs, as well as consequences of using populist methods and activities.
In his article „Understanding Anti-Globalisation”, Byambajav D., lecturer at the Academy of Political Education, states that the understanding saying that globalisation is not a option, it is the reality, and there is now question to be included in globalisation is common. If a serious threat for human security, society, and democracy is not eliminated one doubts that this process will have a positive result. Though social groups and ideas which are united under the name anti-globalisation do not build an political power, if threats and damage caused by anti-globalisation are more than profits and advantages of that, the movement could get strong even it is not united.
Tamir Ch., lecturer at the National University of Mongolia, states in his article “Constitution and Law on election” states that the regulation of election law from 1992 that election of a parliament member is valid if voted by at least 25% of electors within a constituency, is inconsistent with the constitutional change clause that constitution could only be changed by voting at least 57 parliament members. Theoretically, by receiving 25% in 57 constituencies, which make 18% of all votes, it is possible to change constitution. That is inconsistent with the regulation that additions and changes to the constitution is only possible through receiving majority of votes (50+1) in case of a referendum. This gives reason to change the election law in accordance with the constitution.
Results of the joint research work “Move for Education” of Dr. PhD Gita Steiner-Hamsi, Professor for International Education and Comparative Educational Study at the University of Columbia, Dr. Ines Stolpe, lecturer for Mongolian Studies and Comparative Educational Study at the Humboldt University, and Tumendelger S., lecturer for Sociology at the State Pedagogic University say the article deals with school-related migration in Mongolia. The topic has gained tremendous attention in the past two years, and has fueled many concerns such as the problem with retaining students and teachers in remote soum-schools on one hand, and the challenge of dealing with overcrowded schools in aimag-centers and in Ulaanbaatar on the other hand. There are two questions, in particular, that this study attempts to address: Is school a factor for migrating to the Dornod aimag-center or to Ulaanbaatar? Which alternatives to migration do herder families tend to choose for enrolling their children in a school? There are two interesting new developments in this area that are discussed in some detail: (1) the social stratification of dormitories, which now predominately serve resource-poor families, and (2) the dual residence of resourceful families, who purchase an apartment in the aimag-center for their school-aged children.
Enkhbayar Yo., lecturer at the Academy of Political Education, states in his article “Humanist Psycho-Analyse and Discussion between Freud and Marx” that the German-American psychologist, sociologist, and humanist Erich Fromm developed a theoretical framework in order to bring together Sociological Theory of Marx and Psychological Theory of Freud and called Humanist Psycho-analyse. He suggested that the psychological theory of Freud built the basis for the industrial and consumption society of the USA and the Marx’ Theory the basis of Bolshevik Ideology. Fromm takes an honourable place among scientists and sociologists through his work enriching the proper ideas of Marx and Freud’s Theories with humanist ideas and is one of the greatest thinkers of the 20th century.
G. Tsog-Urnukh, lecturer at the Academy of Political Education, states in his article “Investment Issues in the Economy” that importance of foreign investment is widely accepted at state level. Foreign and domestic investment is important for proper solving of economic issues such as how to properly use per capita natural resources, which are also a special issue in Mongolia. In accordance with today’s situation, it is more important to support foreign investment, particularly foreign direct investment. The reason is that the domestic production is weak and technical and technological capacity, productivity as well as profitability is low and there is no any systematic government policy. The key factor for social and economic development is foreign direct investment, so this shall be supported.

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