Saturday, July 7, 2012

Volume 44. Number 3/2003

In article of N.Tuya, former Minister of Foreign Affairs, on “Some thing to say about democracy”: A criterion to establish differences between democratic and undemocratic regime became more refined in the third wave of democracy. Though fundamental opinion of democracy traditionally from history is being stable, issues of how to secure human rights and liberty, and service of political system are at main attention of research institutions. Among those research institutions, a comparative method of level of liberalism of the states of Freedom House has a great value for researcher and politicians.
Although Mongolia has a progressive result that is included in free country with 2.2 points, there is still a hindrance to guarantee democratic development. Among challenging issues of political development of Mongolia, related issues of freedom of press, political parties, democracy and development, aid are studied in this article.

In article of Dr.,Prof. S.Lambaa, ex-parliamentarian, on “Value of Democracy and Immunity: It is about results of democratic movement of Mongolia in 13 years before, importance of strengthening these, current situation of human rights and liberty. It also shows that though human rights and liberty granted by Constitution have been established in its classic form in Mongolia, guarantee, in fact, is a breakable, immunity is an unsatisfactory.
Democracy itself is supported by human rights and liberty, and it gains its live expression in the society. Through this historical tradition, democracy requires high education, wide extent of thinking, self-confidence, ability of choice and selection, the most important instinct is that every citizen has rights to protect his liberty.
In translation of second chapter of book of American political researchers Gabriel Almond and Sydney Verba on “Civil Culture”: It is about a research on political culture of democracy and social structure and works supporting democracy. When they compare political cultures of modern five democracies, they consider about “political culture” and “political civilization”. Thus they identify models of political trend and classify them into “knowledge trend”, “sensitive trend” and “evaluation trend”. Political culture is also classified into kin, serf and sharing.
In article of Sh.Unentugs, a worker of Ministry of Justice and Interior Affairs, “International relationship-Foresight of Asia-Pacific countries, Position of Mongolia: Researchers have various positions about further results of principal changes over last ten years at international level. Some of them consider that enormous countries are distinguished, and many-poled system as an existing independent political force including the Republic of China, Europe, India and Japan, would be stable. But the others summarize that new form of system would be unstable.
Today Mongolia has normal relationship with the United States, Japan, South Korea, the Republic of China and other Asia-Pacific countries in the framework of policy to communicate openly with all countries of World Commonwealth Associations and re-establish a status of Asian country. World influencing countries, such as the United States of America and Japan, play certain roles in our foreign affairs, therefore we are facing to necessities to implement our interests in conformity with their policies.
Economical resource and power of “Asia-Pacific New Commonwealth Association” are extremely much. Besides Asian tiger countries economical region of “Great China”, composes of China, Taiwan and Hong-Kong take an important position here. In the first half of this century, Chinese economy is unquestionable for being largest one with its absolute size in the world. Success of economical development of our neighbors is disadvantageous for our country, also dangerous. The reason is that, our country would be supplement of raw materials to China for many years. Instead, it is important to cooperate with Asia-Pacific countries especially northeast countries such as Japan, Korea in order to change export structure of Mongolia, mainly raw materials.
It is important to work out ideology and policy in taking consideration into country development issues in conformity with current transition system.
To have correct ideology and policy of national development for Mongolia in this condition while international relations are principally changed and “a new world order is established” has become an important task of today. Not depending on which party is in power, the most important is to have stable governance. In this basis, pleasant circumstances will consist to implement correct policy of national development.
In article of D.Byambajav, a lecturer of Social Science Department at the Pedagogical University, “Basis of geopolitical theory and methodological opportunity of defining it”: It is about consideration of how researchers define a word geopolitics since it has entered to science circle. He tried to classify basic approaches of geopolitics into five and summarize them by comparing with each other.
He stated that there is an opportunity of defining this word as all agreed upon and explained geopolitics as a science and as an open science of complex form containing supernatural elements.
He has also stated an opinion that while studying a matter of fact, it is a vital to be based on real concern and reasons by evading from any magic, myth and view approaches.
In article of Yo.Enkhbayar, a lecturer at Political Education Academy, on “Public opinion and role of politics”: One of the important issues of social psychology is how public opinion can affect politics. The researcher considers this issue in conformity with the following in his article. 1.theory of psychoanalysis, one of psychological waves and called as a main discovery in the 20th century, 2.thought on massive psychology in German psychologist, F.Nietsche’s opinion, connect role of people in political work with modern understandings of social psychology. Finally, the researcher summarize that many unconscious thoughts in our mind are few useful in the rapid social development rather than they are useful. So healthy mind can be saved from this unconscious and useless psychology.
In article of D.Dashjav, a specialist of Statistics, Information and Research Unit in Governor’s Office of Ulaanbaatar on “Aging of capital city population and further situation”: It includes some brief definitions of terms and concepts relating to aging of population, and current situation of aging of Ulaanbaatar city. Hypothesis on further situation was also made in conformity with the results of state population and apartment census of 2000.
According to his hypothesis, capital population will move to the second period of the process of growing from 2020, and will move to the third period from 2025.
In article of Ch.Baatar, a lecturer at Political Education Academy, on “Some issues on historical development of local self-governing”: It is about explanation of what is the local self-governing customs at general means. It also includes local self-governing customs, its historical development, and expressed brief contents of basic theories really implemented in the society, which was developed with understanding of that period. Today there are still some complicated issues between philosophers and politicians. The following questions are developed in general with abovementioned theories. He put a question that is local self-governing body continuation of the government activities or independent institution? Finally he explained that there is over tendency to explain the centralization of government activities of local self-governing body’s activities connect to weakening process.
In article of B.Punsaldulam, Ph.,D of the Mongolian State University on “In reformation of history writing”: The main task is about to change traditional understanding of history writing and to re-write it. It is the most classic form of history writing to choose germenevtic psychology in history writing. In terms of germenevtic psychology, tendency to history writing is implemented in the framework of three basic understandings:1.language, 2.knowledge and 3.text. Based on this understandings, clarifying historical resources, based on analyses on them, there must be real understanding in terms of past and present dialogue, thus it is a way of making history writing. Summarizing all these, in terms of germenevtic to history writing, proper results of history writing are defined by objective practice conditions in some case.
B.Altansukh, a lecturer at Political Education Academy, writes about Friedrich von Hayek like that: An English economist, Friedrich von Hayek, one of the great thinkers, was not only an economist, also he was famous for his resolutely criticism on communism and centralized planned economy. He also flatly stands for his idea that ‘’invisible” hand can make healthy market economy more quickly rather than the state regulation in a time that Hitler came in charge of a country and the whole Europe was under totalitarian regime. A minor possibility of people was also hindered rather than market economy that guarantees free choice. Hayek made great discoveries that resolutely change the study of modern economy and study methods. He was also a teacher, who played a major role to develop the ideology of many excellent economists such as Milton Friedman. His works, which approved by that many factors, not only economical also political, legal and institutional forms have a massive influence on economical development, attract public attention until today.

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