Saturday, July 7, 2012

Volume 43. Number 2/2003

In the publication of Politologist Dr. D.Bold-Erdene on “Some aspects of political environment formation of present Mongolia” is mentioned that researchers approach to political environment problems from many aspects of ideology and valuation. For example, he divides it in system-structural, political psychological, institutional and functional tendencies and conditional theory etc. Political environment he describes as certain space form for taking place of political events conditioned by activities of political subjects and specific sphere of efficacy of complex political factors. In this publication the author describes about perspective, nature, specifics, manner and form of present Mongolian political environment, and mentioned that researchers consider its nature as transitional or intermediate. In his explanation about “transitional period” he thinks that present Mongolian political environment can be considered as not yet fully formed one, and explains his proposed criteria in detail. Finally he concluded that it must be accepted that in Mongolia created are component elements of some main natures of closed political environment.
In the publication written by lecturer of Sociological Faculty of Mongolian State University (MSU), Mr. Ch.Tamir on “Some problems of political and business relations in Mongolian society” considered interrelations between political and economic institutions, one of the urgent problems of political sociology, from them specially underlined business-party-state relations. The author considers that in recent years have been developed two events in parallel, namely the interest of our businessmen to get engaged in politics aroused, and also political parties for financing their activities became used to receive financial supports from business people which directly characterize business and party relations. He also describes the factors, which have influences on them. The author in his publication mentioned that elections have very high expenses, and personal interests of political leaders condition the main reason of the entanglement of political parties in business. In his further consideration about interrelations between the state and business, he describes in detail some fundamental reasons of too much dependency of business people of Mongolia on the state as well mutual interest based connections of state officials with businessmen. Finally he comes forward with a proposal that in order to struggle against this phenomenon in our society we should take definite actions through certain legal regulations.
In the publication written by B.Bayarmaa, teacher of PEA, on “Political manipulation: its essence and technology” mentioned that regarding the fact that the use of political manipulation takes place even in democratic society is important to identify and prevent from it. The author noted that manipulation includes methods to influence by unfair decisions, unjust acts and smart ways, and quotes different descriptions of manipulation made by Russian scientists and researchers. She says that manipulation has two basic forms and describes in detail about its main form or political manipulation and its technology. Further on she mentions about its negative consequences, quotes different attitudes of researchers towards struggle against it and expresses her position on the role of neutralization of modern press manipulation impacts.
In the publication written by Yo.Dovchin, lecturer of Political Faculty of MSU, on “Comparative politics: democratization process” is mentioned about how three democratization waves which comprised the world during XX century have influenced social science, including theoretical and empiric developments of politology. He stressed that comparison of democratization processes shows such favorable factors as modern political science became more globalized, international scientists and researchers communicate each others with common science language, general understanding and terminology, and training methodology and paradigm are becoming more common. He having mentioned the tendencies of scientists about main directions of modern comparative study, considered that at present stage the focal point of politology and political study is democratization process. Though there’s no unified empiric theory of democracy, the author quoted some of patterns of options developed by scientists trying to build its theoretical basis as competitive elite democracy pattern, Lipset’s pattern of pre-condition of democracy, poliarch democracy of R.Dali, economic pattern of Democracy of E.Daunce, human rights democracy pattern etc.
In the publication written by D.Myagmarsuren, teacher of Khovd aimak branch of PEA, on “Political prognostication” is described about conception of political prognostication. For example, he described political prognostication as scientifically grounded reflection on object of prognostication or political event and political subjects, and mentioned about two types of political prognosis and works of great thinkers who brought considerable contribution to political prognosis. Further on the author explained and classified political prognostication in exploratory and normative, academic and normal, active and inactive, self-ascertainable and self-negative. Political prognostication he considers in periodicals and explains many methodologies of prognostication as expert inquiry, Delphi, ‘brain attack”, personal pre-assumption, extrapolation, historic analogue, contextual image building, grid analysis and ascertainable prognostication.
In the publication written by B.Altansukh, lecturer of PEA, on “Essence of corruption, its consequences” are mentioned the essence and reasons of corruption, and expressed his own position on rapidly extending corruption in economic field. In this publication the author as dangers of corruption faced in developing countries including post-communist countries, except the factors inherited from previous totalitarian system indicated that 8 definite reasons build favorable ground for corruption. He considers that though in Mongolian society not everything is ridden by corruption but its danger is faced, and concludes that the lack of decisive will of political forces and state power to struggle against brings to the conclusion that in Mongolia democracy came to an end.
A.Pagma, lecturer of PEA, translated article “Parkinson and bureaucrats” from the book “Laws of Parkinson”. S.N. Parkinson for many years had studied bureaucracy of England and revealed its laws which later was named after him. He with definite examples presents Parkinson’s humorist description of those laws that first, an official increases number of his subordinates but not competitors, second, officials work only for each other.
In the publication written by Yo.Enkhbayar, lecturer of PEA, on “Jack Derrida and Deconstructivism” is mentioned about the contribution made by French philosopher Derrida in modern world philosophic thinking by spreading ideas of ‘Deconstructivism”. He mentioned some main works written by Derrida and explained main parts of his conception to readers. As example he cited insolubility or virus on pharmacon and zombi, and he noted that Derrida proceeding from photocentrism ideas of Plato reached deconstructive conception of metaphysics and logocentrism. The author mentioned that Derrida’s works are against western metaphysic ideas and written in very peculiar strategy, and Derrida described the conception of deconstruction as “unbelief in and astonishment at somebody’s luck”. Further on based on examples he states that Derrida introduced deconstruction in many fields as linguistics, literature, architecture and art.
In the publication on “Summary about forms of untraditional thinking or post-modernism” Mr. Ch.Baatar, lecturer of PEA, wrote about post-modernism, one of philosophical trends which became characterized by new nature and method. He explained ideas of post-modernism, history of its origin as well mentioned about conception of J.A. Liotar, one of the founders of philosophic ideas of post-modernism. The author explained specifics of post-modernist philosophy as “putting forward one concept, opposing it against its contradictory concept, and deriving an outcome of it”.
In the publications written by Mrs. B.Oyumaa and Mrs. M.Uyanga, lecturers of MSU, on “Human right in international law and international humanitarian law” considered theoretical concepts of international human rights law and international humanitarian law, and their interrelations. The authors considered problems of humanitarian law of human right from historical development aspect and wrote about ideas of scientists who had compared those laws. In this publication they wrote that the problems of human right regulated by international law have more broad sphere and in case of emergency and martial law world nations use internationally acknowledged norms of humanitarian law as well some of human rights are not expressed in international humanitarian law that there are two independent subdivisions of international law which differ in subjects of regulation, spheres of application, origins and subjects.
In the publication written by E.Baigal, lecturer of MSU, on “Components of norms of international private law” mentioned that international private law is a problem disputed among scientists whether it is a independent law or not, and as example presented its three tendencies. He summarized ideas of scientists and researchers of many countries on international private rights and analyzed legislature of our country, which regulates legal relations of international private law.

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